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Image description cont. The latter two would be slain in the year 9 Rabbit (1086), on the day 8 Death, in a place called Town of the Quetzal, probably Ñuu Ndodzo (today known as Huitzo), at the entrance of the Valley of Oaxaca (date and place on p. 8). In the year 10 House (1061) on the day 6 Deer, Lord 5 Alligator 'Rain-Sun' married for the second time. The name of his wife is given as Lady 9 Eagle 'Cacao Flower'. She was the daughter of Lord 8 Rain 'War Eagle' and Lady 12 Flint 'Quetzal Feathers', rulers of Island of Stone. Band v (left to right). The following children were born from the second marriage (in fact, they were the children of Lady 11 Water): 1) Lord 8 Deer 'Jaguar Claw', born in the year 12 Reed (1063). His birth was marked by several symbolic occurrences, which announced his later importance. The first omen is represented as a long plumed grass. Perhaps this indicates simply that the grasses were extraordinarily high that season, or that there was a drought. But the grass is also a symbol of poverty and oblivion, and may indicate Lord 8 Deer's low birth. On the other hand, these grasses are used in sacrifices, and so might prophesy ritual bloodshed. The same symbol occurs in Codex Tonindeye (Nuttall) as the hieroglyph of the place where Lord 8 Deer starts his huge campaign of conquests. The second omen is represented as the head of the Rain God from which coloured dots emanate, perhaps suggesting an unexpectedly long period (20 days?) of heavy rain, an appropriate sign for the birth of someone whose actions would affect the whole of Ñuu Dzaui, the People of the Rain, i.e. the Mixtecs. The third sign was an eagle, which could be an augury of bravery in war, but could also be understood as a warning that an eagle might snatch away the good luck. 2) The younger brother of Lord 8 Deer was Lord 9 Flower 'Sacred Arrow', born in the year 3 Reed (1067). 3) Their sister, Lady 9 Monkey 'Jewel Quetzal', was born in the year 13 Flint (1064). [She married Lord 8 Alligator 'Blood Coyote', ruler of the great Death Town, i.e. Ñuu Ndaya. 4) A last child, Lady 12 Grass 'Hand with Jewel and Fur', was born in the year 4 House (1081), and married Lord 3 Reed, a visionary priest from Mountain of the Insect, possibly the slope Tiyuqh of Monte Albán. On the day 9 Dog of the Year 5 Rabbit (1082), the great High Priest, Lord 5 Alligator, died. The passing away of this spiritual and political leader must have had a great impact in the region. His ambitious son, Lord 8 Deer, had anticipated it by making himself a name through military conquests and ritual celebrations.]
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Image description cont. [The latter two would be slain in the year 9 Rabbit (1086), on the day 8 Death, in a place called Town of the Quetzal, probably Ñuu Ndodzo (today known as Huitzo), at the entrance of the Valley of Oaxaca (date and place on p. 8). In the year 10 House (1061) on the day 6 Deer, Lord 5 Alligator 'Rain-Sun' married for the second time. The name of his wife is given as Lady 9 Eagle 'Cacao Flower'. She was the daughter of Lord 8 Rain 'War Eagle' and Lady 12 Flint 'Quetzal Feathers', rulers of Island of Stone. Band v (left to right). The following children were born from the second marriage (in fact, they were the children of Lady 11 Water): 1) Lord 8 Deer 'Jaguar Claw', born in the year 12 Reed (1063). His birth was marked by several symbolic occurrences, which announced his later importance. The first omen is represented as a long plumed grass. Perhaps this indicates simply that the grasses were extraordinarily high that season, or that there was a drought. But the grass is also a symbol of poverty and oblivion, and may indicate Lord 8 Deer's low birth. On the other hand, these grasses are used in sacrifices, and so might prophesy ritual bloodshed. The same symbol occurs in Codex Tonindeye (Nuttall) as the hieroglyph of the place where Lord 8 Deer starts his huge campaign of conquests. The second omen is represented as the head of the Rain God from which coloured dots emanate, perhaps suggesting an unexpectedly long period (20 days?) of heavy rain, an appropriate sign for the birth of someone whose actions would affect the whole of Ñuu Dzaui, the People of the Rain, i.e. the Mixtecs. The third sign was an eagle, which could be an augury of bravery in war, but could also be understood as a warning that an eagle might snatch away the good luck. 2) The younger brother of Lord 8 Deer was Lord 9 Flower 'Sacred Arrow', born in the year 3 Reed (1067). 3) Their sister, Lady 9 Monkey 'Jewel Quetzal', was born in the year 13 Flint (1064).] She married Lord 8 Alligator 'Blood Coyote', ruler of the great Death Town, i.e. Ñuu Ndaya. 4) A last child, Lady 12 Grass 'Hand with Jewel and Fur', was born in the year 4 House (1081), and married Lord 3 Reed, a visionary priest from Mountain of the Insect, possibly the slope Tiyuqh of Monte Albán. On the day 9 Dog of the Year 5 Rabbit (1082), the great High Priest, Lord 5 Alligator, died. The passing away of this spiritual and political leader must have had a great impact in the region. His ambitious son, Lord 8 Deer, had anticipated it by making himself a name through military conquests and ritual celebrations.
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Image description cont. On 1 Flint, the day before the day of his calendar name, he had an important conversation with Lord 10 Rabbit 'Blood Jaguar' (words represented by curving lines coming out of their mouth). Other manuscripts show that this man was a grandson of the mighty Lord 8 Wind of Chiyo Yuhu (presumably deceased by now). As such he was a second cousin to Lord 2 Rain's father and would have been respected as an uncle by Lord 2 Rain himself. The subject of the conversation between the two men is not made explicit, but in view of their age and family relationship, it is probable that the elder man gave counsel and instructions to the prince. They had a second conversation on the day 12 Water (Lord 2 Rain depicted at far left of this band beside day sign, and Lord 10 Rabbit at beginning of band i). Band i (left to right). Then, on the day 7 Movement, the last day of the twenty-day period that had started on 1 Flint, Lord 2 Rain spoke with two priests: one in a white priestly tunic with black dots, the other an old man with a red tunic. The first was the priest in charge of the sacred Arrow, and the second was the one with the title 'Smoke' or 'Cloud'. Both were members of the Supreme Council of Four that assisted the ruler of Ñuu Tnoo. Lord 2 Rain engaged in a ritual activity, probably aimed at claiming his rightful position as ruler of Ñuu Tnoo. His body is painted black with a hallucinogenic ointment and his eyes are closed, apparently, he had entered the priestly trance. In one hand he holds a perforator for blood-letting, in the other, he grasps an arrow, directing the point towards his chest. This is probably the Sacred Arrow, the War-Spirit of Ñuu Tnoo. [Still in a trance, the prince made a blood offering to the Divine Lord 7 Vulture in Serpent River, the place of a Sacred Tree. From here, he went on a 'road of knife and star' to heaven, i.e. he died during his shamanic journey. This was the end of the first dynasty. In order to understand the further political development, it is important to focus on another important person necessitating a return in time. Lord 13 Dog 'White Eagle, Venus' and Lady 1 Vulture 'Rain Skirt' had founded a noble house at 'River, Black Mountain, Curved Jaguar Mountain', possibly nearby Ayuta, 'Place of the River'. Codex Tonindeye (Nuttal reveals that Lady 1 Vulture belonged to the dynasty of another neighbouring settlement: Ñuu Ñañu, the old fortress of Yahua (Tamazola). This couple had one son: Lord 5 Alligator 'Rain Sun' (depicted to the right).]
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Image description cont. The line of succession to the 'mat and throne' of the village-state of Ñuu Tnoo passed from Lord 2 Water via his daughter to his grandson Lord 6 deer 'Sacred Rain'. Starting with Lord 2 Water, the birth years of the inheriting princes cause chronological problems. It seems that during the process of putting in the dates, the years associated with the births of the last rulers in the dynasty have changed places, so that they became consistently associated with the ruler of the previous generation, leaving the last precolonial ruler of Ñuu Tnoo without a birth year. Band i (left to right). Lord 6 Deer married Lady 13 Wind 'Seed of Split Hill', daughter of Lord 5 Water 'Ndisi Nuu Jaguar'of the Añute dynasty and Lady 7 Rain 'Ndisi Nuu Fan' of the house of Ndisi Nuu. Lord 6 Deer and Lady 13 Wind ruled in Ñuu Tnoo and had two sons: 1) Lord 4 Flower 'Pheasant' (mistakenly written 5 Flower) was born in the year 10 Rabbit which would correspond either to 1386 or to 1438, but which probably should be 7 House (now birth date associated with his father): 1409. 2) Lord 4 Death 'War Venus', who married Lady 11 Monkey 'Jade Spiderweb', a princess from Chiyo Yuhu [and Stone of the Red and White Bundle. Lord 4 Flower married Lady 7 Vulture 'Quetzal Fan', the daughter of Lord 10 Water 'Rain Knife' and Lady 11 Lizard 'Butterfly, Fire Serpent', rulers of Bean Town, i.e. Ñuu Nduchi (Etla). They had the following seven children: 1) Lord 10 Rain 'Rain Sun', whose birth date is given as the year 9 Flint but which probably should be 10 Rabbit, i.e. 1438.]
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Image description cont. The line of succession to the 'mat and throne' of the village-state of Ñuu Tnoo passed from Lord 2 Water via his daughter to his grandson Lord 6 deer 'Sacred Rain'. Starting with Lord 2 Water, the birth years of the inheriting princes cause chronological problems. It seems that during the process of putting in the dates, the years associated with the births of the last rulers in the dynasty have changed places, so that they became consistently associated with the ruler of the previous generation, leaving the last precolonial ruler of Ñuu Tnoo without a birth year. Band i (left to right). Lord 6 Deer married Lady 13 Wind 'Seed of Split Hill', daughter of Lord 5 Water 'Ndisi Nuu Jaguar'of the Añute dynasty and Lady 7 Rain 'Ndisi Nuu Fan' of the house of Ndisi Nuu. Lord 6 Deer and Lady 13 Wind ruled in Ñuu Tnoo and had two sons: 1) Lord 4 Flower 'Pheasant' (mistakenly written 5 Flower) was born in the year 10 Rabbit which would correspond either to 1386 or to 1438, but which probably should be 7 House (now birth date associated with his father): 1409. 2) Lord 4 Death 'War Venus', who married Lady 11 Monkey 'Jade Spiderweb', a princess from Chiyo Yuhu] and Stone of the Red and White Bundle. Lord 4 Flower married Lady 7 Vulture 'Quetzal Fan', the daughter of Lord 10 Water 'Rain Knife' and Lady 11 Lizard 'Butterfly, Fire Serpent', rulers of Bean Town, i.e. Ñuu Nduchi (Etla). They had the following seven children: 1) Lord 10 Rain 'Rain Sun', whose birth date is given as the year 9 Flint but which probably should be 10 Rabbit, i.e. 1438.
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Image description cont. After the death of Lord 4 Water, his wife, Lady 6 Water 'Quetzal, Jewel of the Flower War' married again, now to Lord 4 Death 'War Venus of the Ndisi Nuu', a son of Lord 10 Rabbit 'Ndisi Nuu' and Lady 11 Rabbit 'Jewel of the Rising Deity (the East)', rulers of Ndisi Nuu. The wedding was celebrated in the year 6 Reed (1343), on the day 8 Deer. This was the beginning of the third dynasty of Ñuu Tnoo and meant an alliance with the rising power Ndisi Nuu. From this second marriage of Lady 6 Water, four daughters were born: 1) Lady 3 Rabbit 'Divine Spiderweb', in the year 8 House (1345). [2) Lady 4 Serpent 'Jewel of Ndisi Nuu' who married Lord 7 Grass 'Blood Jaguar' of Monkey Town (probably Teita). 3) Lady 8 Flint 'Cloud Head', who married Lord 13 Lizard 'Blood Rain' of Mountain of Flowers (probably Yucu Ita). 4) Lady 10 Water 'Ñuu Dzaui Fan'.]
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Image description cont. After the death of Lord 4 Water, his wife, Lady 6 Water 'Quetzal, Jewel of the Flower War' married again, now to Lord 4 Death 'War Venus of the Ndisi Nuu', a son of Lord 10 Rabbit 'Ndisi Nuu' and Lady 11 Rabbit 'Jewel of the Rising Deity (the East)', rulers of Ndisi Nuu. The wedding was celebrated in the year 6 Reed (1343), on the day 8 Deer. This was the beginning of the third dynasty of Ñuu Tnoo and meant an alliance with the rising power Ndisi Nuu. From this second marriage of Lady 6 Water, four daughters were born: 1) Lady 3 Rabbit 'Divine Spiderweb', in the year 8 House (1345).] 2) Lady 4 Serpent 'Jewel of Ndisi Nuu' who married Lord 7 Grass 'Blood Jaguar' of Monkey Town (probably Teita). 3) Lady 8 Flint 'Cloud Head', who married Lord 13 Lizard 'Blood Rain' of Mountain of Flowers (probably Yucu Ita). 4) Lady 10 Water 'Ñuu Dzaui Fan'.
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Image description cont. Another important political factor was the ancient Zapotec capital of Monte Albán, the ruins of which are situated in a mountain near the city of Oaxaca. Its main sign, the 'mountain that is opened or torn', is to be read as Yucu Cahnu, 'Big Mountain'. It was a place of altars and vessels, a place of origin. Here ruled Lord 10 Movement 'Arrow' and Lady 1 Rabbit 'Shield'. Its sacred date was 1 Rabbit day 1 Rabbit.]
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Image description cont. Another important political factor was the ancient Zapotec capital of Monte Albán, the ruins of which are situated in a mountain near the city of Oaxaca. Its main sign, the 'mountain that is opened or torn', is to be read as Yucu Cahnu, 'Big Mountain'. It was a place of altars and vessels, a place of origin. Here ruled Lord 10 Movement 'Arrow' and Lady 1 Rabbit 'Shield'. Its sacred date was 1 Rabbit day 1 Rabbit.
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Image description cont. [Then a conflict arose between the two half-brothers. Lord 1 Lizard chased Lord 8 Grass from the Temple of the Brazier, beating him with sticks. As a consequence, Lord 8 Grass and his father Lord 2 Movement became enemies of Lord 1 Lizard and went away 'with burning feet', i.e. waging war. In the year 12 Rabbit (1206), on the day 5 Lizard, they arrived in Mountain of Hair or Fibre.]
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Image description cont. Then a conflict arose between the two half-brothers. Lord 1 Lizard chased Lord 8 Grass from the Temple of the Brazier, beating him with sticks. As a consequence, Lord 8 Grass and his father Lord 2 Movement became enemies of Lord 1 Lizard and went away 'with burning feet', i.e. waging war. In the year 12 Rabbit (1206), on the day 5 Lizard, they arrived in Mountain of Hair or Fibre.
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Image description cont. She was from a Toltec noble house: her parents were Lord 5 Eagle and Lady 9 Serpent, rulers of Place of Bird with Arrow-Pointed Beak', probably Totomihuacan near Cholula. Band v (left to right). This Lady 9 Serpent in turn was the daughter of a couple that ruled in the great Tollan, i.e. Cholula itself: Lady 11 Serpent 'Jewel Mouth' and Lord 1 Lizard 'Serpent-Decorated Shield'. The latter was the son of Lord 5 Dog 'Plumed Jaguar Serpent' and Lady 2 Death 'Quetzal Feather of Royal Blood', from Red Steambath, i.e. Ñuu Niñe (Tonalá) in the Mixteca Baja. [Lord 8 Deer and Lady 11 Serpent had two children: Lord 10 Movement 'Quetzal Owl' and Lady 2 Grass 'Sacred Jade'. They were both taken to Cholula at an early age to become instructed in the temple cult. Toltec priests carried them on their backs. Arriving there at the Temple of Pearls the two made incense offerings to the Sacred Bundle and then married each other. Clearly Lord 8 Deer tried to confirm his political alliance with the ruler of Cholula through marrying a Toltec noblewoman and having his children grown up in that important capital. A Toltec branch of the family was thus created.]
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Image description cont. She was from a Toltec noble house: her parents were Lord 5 Eagle and Lady 9 Serpent, rulers of Place of Bird with Arrow-Pointed Beak', probably Totomihuacan near Cholula. Band v (left to right). This Lady 9 Serpent in turn was the daughter of a couple that ruled in the great Tollan, i.e. Cholula itself: Lady 11 Serpent 'Jewel Mouth' and Lord 1 Lizard 'Serpent-Decorated Shield'. The latter was the son of Lord 5 Dog 'Plumed Jaguar Serpent' and Lady 2 Death 'Quetzal Feather of Royal Blood', from Red Steambath, i.e. Ñuu Niñe (Tonalá) in the Mixteca Baja.] Lord 8 Deer and Lady 11 Serpent had two children: Lord 10 Movement 'Quetzal Owl' and Lady 2 Grass 'Sacred Jade'. They were both taken to Cholula at an early age to become instructed in the temple cult. Toltec priests carried them on their backs. Arriving there at the Temple of Pearls the two made incense offerings to the Sacred Bundle and then married each other. Clearly Lord 8 Deer tried to confirm his political alliance with the ruler of Cholula through marrying a Toltec noblewoman and having his children grown up in that important capital. A Toltec branch of the family was thus created.
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Image description cont. [Soon afterwards, Lord 8 Deer received a group of 4 Toltecs, distinguished by specific attributes and names: Lord Wind, who was the Carrier of the Bone Flute, Lord 'Serpent Ear-Ornament', Lord 'Smoking Shield', and Lord Hummingbird. All hold a staff and a fan, the characteristic attributes of travellers and ambassadors. They came to transmit the words of Lord 4 Jaguar, the ruler of Town of the Cattail Reeds, which is the sign of Tollan-Cholollan, present-day Cholula, in Central Mexico. Lord 8 Deer welcomed them with a ceremonial salute. An omen was seen: when lord 8 Deer decapitated a quail as an offering to his visitors, an eagle came down from heaven and grasped the quail's head. The scene recalls the omen at the birth of Lord 8 Deer. Band ii (right to left). The next year, Lord 8 Deer went on the warpath to conquer Mountain of the Moon Vessel, i.e. Yucu Yoo (Acatepec) fortress on top of the northern cliffs of Monte Albán. He captured its ruler, Lord 3 Alligator, and took him to the Toltec king,] Lord 4 Jaguar, in Cholula, to be sacrificed. One the day Wind of the year 7 House (1097), Lord 8 Deer underwent the ceremony of Toltec rulership. We see him reclining on a jaguar throne, a Toltec nobleman perforated his septum and placed in his nose the turquoise ornament, symbol of royal status. Band i (left to right). Lord 8 Deer returned to Ñuu Tnoo, where he deposited the Objects of Power: the Staff of Rulership, the Precious Shield, and the sacred Bundle. The day 4 Wind of the year 8 Rabbit (1098) marked his elevation to the status of great king. From here he again went on the warpath, now to the Place of Heaven, the East, where the Founders of the Ñuu Tnoo dynasty, Lord 4 Alligator and Lady 1 Death, were venerated. In a sanctuary there, he had a vision. Codices Iya Nacuaa (Colombino-Becker) and Tonindeye (Nuttall) explain that Lord 8 Deer undertook this campaign together with the Toltec ruler Lord 4 Jaguar and arrived at the Temple of the Sun God Lord 1 Death. Coming back in the year 9 reed (1099) [he visited Town of the Pointed Objects and the Eagle. Later, on the day 7 Flower of the year 12 Rabbit (1102), he returned here to celebrate a royal ritual, drinking pulque, the alcoholic drink made from maguey juice, and receiving the salute and recognition of Lord 13 Jaguar 'War eagle'. Passing over dramatic events in Lord 8 Deer's personal and political life (alluded to on the reverse of Codex Bodley, p. 34-v), the narrative proceeds directly to the day 13 Serpent in the year Reed (1103).]
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Image description cont. Soon afterwards, Lord 8 Deer received a group of 4 Toltecs, distinguished by specific attributes and names: Lord Wind, who was the Carrier of the Bone Flute, Lord 'Serpent Ear-Ornament', Lord 'Smoking Shield', and Lord Hummingbird. All hold a staff and a fan, the characteristic attributes of travellers and ambassadors. They came to transmit the words of Lord 4 Jaguar, the ruler of Town of the Cattail Reeds, which is the sign of Tollan-Cholollan, present-day Cholula, in Central Mexico. Lord 8 Deer welcomed them with a ceremonial salute. An omen was seen: when lord 8 Deer decapitated a quail as an offering to his visitors, an eagle came down from heaven and grasped the quail's head. The scene recalls the omen at the birth of Lord 8 Deer. Band ii (right to left). The next year, Lord 8 Deer went on the warpath to conquer Mountain of the Moon Vessel, i.e. Yucu Yoo (Acatepec) fortress on top of the northern cliffs of Monte Albán. He captured its ruler, Lord 3 Alligator, and took him to the Toltec king, [Lord 4 Jaguar, in Cholula, to be sacrificed. One the day Wind of the year 7 House (1097), Lord 8 Deer underwent the ceremony of Toltec rulership. We see him reclining on a jaguar throne, a Toltec nobleman perforated his septum and placed in his nose the turquoise ornament, symbol of royal status. Band i (left to right). Lord 8 Deer returned to Ñuu Tnoo, where he deposited the Objects of Power: the Staff of Rulership, the Precious Shield, and the sacred Bundle. The day 4 Wind of the year 8 Rabbit (1098) marked his elevation to the status of great king. From here he again went on the warpath, now to the Place of Heaven, the East, where the Founders of the Ñuu Tnoo dynasty, Lord 4 Alligator and Lady 1 Death, were venerated. In a sanctuary there, he had a vision. Codices Iya Nacuaa (Colombino-Becker) and Tonindeye (Nuttall) explain that Lord 8 Deer undertook this campaign together with the Toltec ruler Lord 4 Jaguar and arrived at the Temple of the Sun God Lord 1 Death. Coming back in the year 9 reed (1099)] he visited Town of the Pointed Objects and the Eagle. Later, on the day 7 Flower of the year 12 Rabbit (1102), he returned here to celebrate a royal ritual, drinking pulque, the alcoholic drink made from maguey juice, and receiving the salute and recognition of Lord 13 Jaguar 'War eagle'. Passing over dramatic events in Lord 8 Deer's personal and political life (alluded to on the reverse of Codex Bodley, p. 34-v), the narrative proceeds directly to the day 13 Serpent in the year Reed (1103).
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Image description cont. [Lord 9 Wind 'Stone Skull' then married Lady 5 Reed, one of the three princesses of Monte Albán, whose genealogical background is explained on p. 3-i. Together, they became the rulers of Ñuu Tnoo. The year of the marriage was 4 Rabbit (990).]
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Image description cont. Lord 9 Wind 'Stone Skull' then married Lady 5 Reed, one of the three princesses of Monte Albán, whose genealogical background is explained on p. 3-i. Together, they became the rulers of Ñuu Tnoo. The year of the marriage was 4 Rabbit (990).
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Shelfmark MS. Mex. d. 1
Folio or page no. p. 006
Image description cont. Apparently, he never ruled Ñuu Tnoo, but stood under the influence of the ruling family of Chiyo Yuhu. [In the year 11 Reed (1075), Lady 2 Grass was close to giving birth to her first son. On the day 9 Reed a vision appeared in an obsidian mirror: a birth was announced, and an umbilical cord was seen, connected to 9 Reed (bottom right corner of this band on this page, under 11 Reed date sign). This was the day of the Goddess who was the Power of the Arrowhead of the Volcanic Glass (obsidian). The vision stated that the child was going to be dedicated to that goddess, to be under her spell and supervision. Six days later, the child foreseen in the mirror was born: Lord 2 Rain 'Twenty Jaguars' (Ocoñana, note number 20 given by 20 black dots along the figure). He was heir to the throne of Ñuu Tnoo, but another manuscript (Codex Tonindeye/Nuttall) shows that Lord 8 Wind of Chiyo Yuhu had him put under the watchful eyes of his warriors. In the year 6 Flint (1096), Prince 2 Rain 'Twenty Jaguars' reached the age of 21. On 1 Flint, the day before the day of his calendar name, he had an important conversation with Lord 10 Rabbit 'Blood Jaguar' (words represented by curving lines coming out of their mouth). Other manuscripts show that this man was a grandson of the mighty Lord 8 Wind of Chiyo Yuhu (presumably deceased by now). As such he was a second cousin to Lord 2 Rain's father and would have been respected as an uncle by Lord 2 Rain himself. The subject of the conversation between the two men is not made explicit, but in view of their age and family relationship, it is probable that the elder man gave counsel and instructions to the prince. They had a second conversation on the day 12 Water (Lord 2 Rain depicted at far left of this band beside day sign, and Lord 10 Rabbit at beginning of band i). Band i (left to right). Then, on the day 7 Movement, the last day of the twenty-day period that had started on 1 Flint, Lord 2 Rain spoke with two priests: one in a white priestly tunic with black dots, the other an old man with a red tunic. The first was the priest in charge of the sacred Arrow, and the second was the one with the title 'Smoke' or 'Cloud'. Both were members of the Supreme Council of Four that assisted the ruler of Ñuu Tnoo. Lord 2 Rain engaged in a ritual activity, probably aimed at claiming his rightful position as ruler of Ñuu Tnoo. His body is painted black with a hallucinogenic ointment and his eyes are closed, apparently, he had entered the priestly trance. In one hand he holds a perforator for blood-letting, in the other, he grasps an arrow, directing the point towards his chest. This is probably the Sacred Arrow, the War-Spirit of Ñuu Tnoo.] Still in a trance, the prince made a blood offering to the Divine Lord 7 Vulture in Serpent River, the place of a Sacred Tree. From here, he went on a 'road of knife and star' to heaven, i.e. he died during his shamanic journey. This was the end of the first dynasty. In order to understand the further political development, it is important to focus on another important person necessitating a return in time. Lord 13 Dog 'White Eagle, Venus' and Lady 1 Vulture 'Rain Skirt' had founded a noble house at 'River, Black Mountain, Curved Jaguar Mountain', possibly nearby Ayuta, 'Place of the River'. Codex Tonindeye (Nuttal reveals that Lady 1 Vulture belonged to the dynasty of another neighbouring settlement: Ñuu Ñañu, the old fortress of Yahua (Tamazola). This couple had one son: Lord 5 Alligator 'Rain Sun' (depicted to the right).
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